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Имеется решение для варианта 4!


Вариант 1

1.Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на способы перевода инфинитива. Подчеркните инфинитив в английских предложениях.

1. To reduce current losses in electric wires voltage is increased and current is proportionally decreased.

2. The conductors to be used for transmitting the electric power to the trains are either the third rail or the overhead wire.

3. To convert a railway to electric haulage a costly reconstruction work is necessary.


2.Образуйте от данных глаголов две формы Participle I. Полученные причастия переведите на русский язык

Model: to read – a) reading – читая, читающий;

b) having read – прочитав

1) to offer; 2) to attend; 3) to bring; 4) to discover; 5) to find; 6) to do; 7) to say; 8) to obtain; 9) to deliver; 10) to shut; 11) to ring; 12) to declare; 13) to reduce; 14) to depart; 15) to implement.


3. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на употребление Participle I . Подчеркните причастия I в английских предложениях и в переводе.

1. While reconstructing the tunnel the engineers equipped it for a.c. ( alternating current) electric traction.

* 2. Regenerative breaking is used on lines carrying high-density traffic.

3. Railway electrification attracts the attention of transport engineers in the countries facing the energy crisis.

4. Образуйте Participle II от глаголов, данных в скобках. Полученные словосочетания переведите.

Model: a (to write) article – a written article – написанная статья.

1) a (to damage) car; 2) freight (to transport) by railways; 3) an engine of (to improve) design; 4) (to weigh) luggage; 5) a (to choose) profession; 6) a (to restore) bridge; 7) a locomotive (to drive) by steam; 8) figures (to mention) in the report; 9) the (to forget) promise; 10) the distance (to cover) by train.

5. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на употребление Participle II . Подчеркните причастия II в английских предложениях и в переводе.

1. The first method used in producing an electric current was chemical in nature.

2. In the course of his experiments, A.Volt developed the first electric battery, a device known as a voltaic pile.

3. Electronuclear machines more generally called particle accelerators, have played a vital role in the development of nuclear science and technology.

6. Перепишите и письменно переведите текст.

What is an electric current?

The question is often asked:”What is an electric current?”. No one has ever seen it. We only know of the existence of a current owing to its effects. A current can heat a conductor, it can have a chemical action when passing through a solution, or it can produce a magnetic effect. The practical unit of current is called the Ampere.

Two things are necessary to cause an electric current to flow: first- a complete circuit, and second –a driving force called the electromotive force.

A battery has a surplus of electrons on one of its two plates. If a copper wire is run from one plate to the other, a current flows in the complete circuit thus made. If a small bulb is placed in the circuit ,it will light up. If the batteries were disconnected and a generator substituted for it, we should have a typical lighting system. Both batteries and generators are the most common sources of electromotive force. The practical unit of electromotive force is the volt.

Current will flow more readily in some substances than in other. Such substances as porcelain, ebonite, rubber, glass are known as insulators. The practical unit of resistance is the Ohm.

Вариант 2

1.Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на способы перевода инфинитива. Подчеркните инфинитив в английских предложениях.

1. For the electric current to flow an electric conductor is needed.

2. The electric energy to drive train may be taken from the overhead wire.

3. In spite of a high initial cost of electrification it’s essential for the major trunk lines to be electrified.

2.Образуйте от данных глаголов две формы Participle I. Полученные причастия переведите на русский язык

Model: to read – a) reading – читая, читающий;

b) having read – прочитав

1) to offer; 2) to attend; 3) to bring; 4) to discover; 5) to find; 6) to do; 7) to say; 8) to obtain; 9) to deliver; 10) to shut; 11) to ring; 12) to light; 13) to reduce; 14) to depart; 15) to implement.

3. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на употребление Participle I . Подчеркните причастия I в английских предложениях и в переводе.

1. The locomotives hauling trains on mountainous railways usually operate on electric energy.

2. Any material substituting copper must have the current-carrying capacity.

3. While using the copper control system the number of motor cars is smaller than with conventional control system.

4. Образуйте Participle II от глаголов, данных в скобках. Полученные словосочетания переведите.

Model: a (to write) article – a written article – написанная статья.

1) a locomotive (to power) by electricity; 2) a (to delay) flight; 3) a (to break) engine; 4) a report (to type) in duplicate; 5) a (to carry out) plan; 6) a (to suspend) bridge; 7) a contract (to sign) by 2 companies; 8) mistakes (to make) in calculations; 9) the (to develop) countries; 10) railway tickets (to sell) yesterday.

5. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на употребление Participle II . Подчеркните причастия II в английских предложениях и в переводе.

1. The appliance received required some improvement.

2. The amount of electricity generated depended on the quality of the coal.

3. The economies obtained by the use of electric traction are in the financial-economics plan.

6. Перепишите и письменно переведите текст

Railway Electrification.

There are four chief attractions of electric haulage. One is great rapidity of acceleration. The next advantage is that the electric locomotive is always ready for use and can remain in service for practically the whole of twenty-four hours continuously. Under electrification the maintenance and operation costs are relatively cheap. Another essential benefit to be obtained is the ability of electrics to haul very long and heavy trains for there is practically no limit to the energy to be taken by the locomotive from the catenary. Besides of all the existing kinds of traction the electric haulage is the most promising as regards speeds.

The electric rolling stock is of two types: locomotive-hauled trains and multiple-unit trains. Thanks to their rapid acceleration multiple-unit trains are most suitable for suburban railways with their frequent stops and frequent services. As to electric locomotives they are mainly used to haul long-distance goods and passenger trains.


Вариант 3

1.Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на способы перевода инфинитива. Подчеркните инфинитив в английских предложениях.

1. The liner electric motor to be used on the Japanese railways will greatly increase the speed of the trains.

2. The new instruments to be introduced on the substations will increase the reliability of the electric machines.

3. Auto-transformers to be used on the substations will be introduced on the Russian Railways in the nearest future.

2.Образуйте от данных глаголов две формы Participle I. Полученные причастия переведите на русский язык

Model: to read – a) reading – читая, читающий;

b) having read – прочитав

1) to offer; 2) to attend; 3) to bring; 4) to discover; 5) to find; 6) to do; 7) to say; 8) to obtain; 9) to deliver; 10) to shut; 11) to ring; 12) to declare; 13) to reduce; 14) to depart; 15) to implement.

3. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на употребление Participle I . Подчеркните причастия I в английских предложениях и в переводе.

1. Electric trains can be driven from either end which reduces shunting movement at terminals.

2. Overhead construction is also adopted for continuous-current railways operating at voltage of 1500 V and above.

3. Working as a unit two motor cars can be operated by one engineman

4. Образуйте Participle II от глаголов, данных в скобках. Полученные словосочетания переведите.

Model: a (to write) article – a written article – написанная статья.

1) a train (to control) by automatic engine-driver; 2) the (to obtain) result; 3) a (to destroy) bridge; 4) machinery (to produce) at our plant; 5) a (to propose) project; 6) equipment (to install) in the laboratory; 7) a (to test) method; 8) a terminal (to upgrade) last year; 9) a railway (to build) for high-speed passenger traffic; 10) a (to repair) section of track.

5. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на употребление Participle II . Подчеркните причастия II в английских предложениях и в переводе.

1. Connecting to electric traction railways will benefit fully from their ability.

2. The first source of continuous current constructed by Volt appeared in 1800.

3. The problem solved helped to increase the speed of the train.

6. Перепишите и письменно переведите текст.

Transformers

There are two classes of transformers: step-up and step-down transformers. When the number of turns of wire on the secondary winding is the same as the number of the primary winding, the secondary voltage is the same as the primary, and we get what is called a “one-to-one” transformer. In case when the number of turns on the secondary winding is greater than those on the primary, the output voltage is larger than the input voltage and the transformer is called a step-up transformer. On the other hand, the secondary turns being fewer in number than the primary, the transformer is known as a step-down transformer.

It is important to note that a transformer is practically indispensable in the transmission of electric energy over wires for long distance. To avoid large heat losses, transformers at the power house step the voltage to 220 volts before switching the current onto the power line. At the consumer’s of the line, a transformer substation steps the voltage down to its original value of 2,220 volts. From there branch lines distribute the power to various sections of the city where smaller transformers, one near each group of several houses, step it down again to the relatively safe voltage of 110 to 220 volts.

 

Вариант 4

1.Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на способы перевода инфинитива. Подчеркните инфинитив в английских предложениях.

1. The Moscow-Mytishchi suburban railway was the second to be electrified in our country.

2. Werner von Siemens was the first to produce a passenger electric locomotive.

3. To connect the central region of the country with the East, the Kurgan-Sverdlovsk line has been electrified in addition to the existing line.

2.Образуйте от данных глаголов две формы Participle I. Полученные причастия переведите на русский язык

Model: to read – a) reading – читая, читающий;

b) having read – прочитав

1) to use; 2) to make; 3) to develop; 4) to forget; 5) to burn; 6) to transport; 7) to receive; 8) to feel; 9) to study; 10) to carry; 11) to go; 12) to try; 13) to think; 14) to cover; 15) to speak.


3. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на употребление Participle I . Подчеркните причастия I в английских предложениях и в переводе.

1. The single-phase system involves the use of the open-air transforming stations requiring no attendance.

2. Using the three-phase system makes it possible to make trains on descending grades send energy back into the overhead wires for utilizing it by trains up the ascending grades.

3. The d.c. (direct current) system and a.c.(alternating current) system being considered here clearly show their advantages and disadvantages.

4. Образуйте Participle II от глаголов, данных в скобках. Полученные словосочетания переведите.

Model: a (to write) article – a written article – написанная статья.

2) a (to damage) car; 2) freight (to transport) by railways; 3) an engine of (to improve) design; 4) (to weigh) luggage; 5) a (to choose) profession; 6) a (to restore) bridge; 7) a locomotive (to drive) by steam; 8) figures (to mention) in the report; 9) the (to forget) promise; 10) the distance (to cover) by train.


5. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на употребление Participle II . Подчеркните причастия II в английских предложениях и в переводе.

1. There are many current systems adopted on the world-electrified railroads.

2. For very high potentials used on long distance transmission lines extra precautions as to insulation are required.

3. The advantage of the a.c. system lies in the high efficiency obtained.

6. Перепишите и письменно переведите текст.

Most intercity electric trains receive power through an overhead wire called a catenary. In the overhead wire system, a steel framework connects a car, usually a locomotive, to a catenary. The framework, called a pantograph, delivers electric current from the wire to the locomotive’s propulsion system. This system includes the traction motors. Traction motors power the driving wheels, which usually move the locomotive.

Intercity electric trains have one or more locomotives that pull freight or passengers cars. Most electric locomotives weigh between 100 and 200 short tons (90 and 180 metric tons) and provide about 6,000 to 7,000 horsepower (4,500 to 5,200 kilowatts). They can reach speed of over 150 miles (240 kilometers) per hour.

An electrified third rail delivers electricity to most inter-urban trains. Trains using a third rail have metal plates called shoes. Two shoes are attached to the bottom of a locomotive or railcar. The shoes slide along the third rail, delivering electric current to the car’s propulsion system. Some inter-urban railcars have traction motors, which range from 119 to 282 horsepower (89 to 210 kilowatts).


Вариант 5

1.Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на способы перевода инфинитива. Подчеркните инфинитив в английских предложениях.

1. The electrified lines of Russia are able to cater more than 50% of the entire cargo haulage.

2. It is not economic to use electric locomotives for shunting operation.

3. To drive electric locomotives we must have machines that can convert electricity into mechanical motion.


2.Образуйте от данных глаголов две формы Participle I. Полученные причастия переведите на русский язык

Model: to read – a) reading – читая, читающий;

b) having read – прочитав

1) to use; 2) to make; 3) to develop; 4) to forget; 5) to burn; 6) to transport; 7) to receive; 8) to feel; 9) to study; 10) to carry; 11) to go; 12) to try; 13) to think; 14) to cover; 15) to speak.


3. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на употребление Participle I . Подчеркните причастия I в английских предложениях и в переводе.

1. The construction of power-stations operating on atomic fuel and generating electric current is quite necessary.

2. When placing an iron core within a solenoid, we obtain an electromagnet

3. An electric current passing through a wire heats that wire.


4. Образуйте Participle II от глаголов, данных в скобках. Полученные словосочетания переведите.

Model: a (to write) article – a written article – написанная статья.

1) a locomotive (to power) by electricity; 2) a (to delay) flight; 3) a (to break) engine; 4) a report (to type) in duplicate; 5) a (to carry out) plan; 6) a (to suspend) bridge; 7) a contract (to sign) by 2 companies; 8) mistakes (to make) in calculations; 9) the (to develop) countries; 10) railway tickets (to sell) yesterday.

5. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на употребление Participle II . Подчеркните причастия II в английских предложениях и в переводе.

1. When heated to a suitable temperature, a filament emits electrons.

2. It was recognized that a source of controlled high-energy particles in sufficient quantities would be extremely useful in nuclear experiments.

3. The graphite-uranium reactors will be installed in the deep concrete- faced wells.

6. Перепишите и письменно переведите текст.

THE HISTORY OF RAILWAY ELECTRIFICATION

The world railways are searching the ways to increase their economic efficiency and the speeds of passengers and goods trains. One essential condition to achieve this is electric traction.

The first attempt to apply electricity to transport purposes was made by Jacobi, a Russian physicist and electrical engineer. In 1838 he ran an electric boat at a speed of about 5kph on the Neva River.

Another major success in using electric power was made by Werner von Siemens who was the first to produce a passenger electric locomotive. His locomotive was demonstrated at the exhibition in Berlin in 1879.

Two years later a small electric railway, the first one in the world, was put into operation in Berlin. Then an electrically operated railway was built in the British Isles. It was an underground railway in London opened to traffic in 1890.

In spite of having a relatively short history electric traction has made a remarkable progress. Electric railways perform valuable service on every continent.


Пример решения:

1.Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык,  обращая внимание на способы перевода инфинитива. Подчеркните инфинитив в английских предложениях.

1. The Moscow-Mytishchi suburban railway was the second to be electrified in our country.

Пригородная железная дорога Москва-Мытищи была электрифицирована второй в нашей стране.

2. Werner von Siemens was the first to produce a passenger electric locomotive.

Вернер фон Сименс первым выпустил пассажирский электрический локомотив.

3. To connect the central region of the country with the East, the Kurgan-Sverdlovsk line has been electrified in addition to the existing line.

Чтобы соединить центральный регион страны с Востоком, вдобавок к существующей линии была электрифицирована Кургано-Свердловская линия.


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