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Задания к контрольной работе №3

 

1. Напишите следующие прилагательные в сравнительной и превосходной степени:

beautiful, good, pale, thin, lazy, bad, hot, difficult, dirty, short, long, interesting, deep, young


2. Поставьте взятые в скобки прилагательные и наречия в сравнительную и превосходную степени:

1. Who is the (strong) boy in your group?

2. One of the (interesting) places in our city is the embankment.

3. Yekaterinburg is one of the (big) industrial centres of Russia.

4. Yesterday we came home (early) than usual.

5. With the coming of the spring all people seemed (happy) and (quiet).

6. Today the weather is (bad) than it was yesterday.

7. It was the (good) reward we wished.

8. He is (little) educated than his father.

9. Where is the (far) point?


3. Заполните пропуски союзами as ... as, (not) so ... as и переведите предложения на русский язык:

1. Is Yekaterinburg ... big ... Moscow?

2. The Don is ... long ... the Volga.

3. The weather is ... nice today ... it was yesterday.

4. What other months are ... long ... April?

5. The last winter was not ... cold ... this winter.

6. My room is ... light ... yours.

7. This English book is not ...easy for me ... the book you gave me to read last time.

8. I do not get up ... early on Sunday ... on week-days.

 

4. Переведите следующие словосочетания на английский язык:

более трудный предмет, самая важная проблема, самый большой в России, самые глубокие знания, менее трудный экзамен, самый молодой, менее важный, намного интереснее, гораздо легче, намного лучше, гораздо дешевле


5. Напишите глаголы, данные в скобках, в соответствующей форме; соблюдайте правила согласования времён:

1. We were informed that many scientists (work) at that problem.

2. The foreign tourists asked when the plant (put) to operation.

3. We thought that the results of the work (be) better.

4. They said that they (study) at the library for two hours the day be fore yesterday.

5. The experiments proved that great economy (can) be realized by using automation.

6. At the press conference the engineers were asked whether they (carry out) everything programmed by the scientists.

7. The teacher was sure that all his students (be ready) for the test that day.

8. The newspapers reported that a new engine (be) launched.

9. The assistants said that they (look for) the data which were necessary for their research.

10. The lecturer said that mathematics and science (supply) the principal tools for discovering, testing and stating the laws of nature.


6. В данных предложениях определите, чем являются в них слова с окончанием -ing (герундий, причастие, отлагательное существительное). Переведите предложения на русский язык:

1. Talking with him is a real pleasure.

2. The professor insisted on doing it immediately.

3. A new broadcasting station has begun to function.

4. Everything depends on your being here in time.

5. The news was exciting.

6. After signing the document the secretary went away.

7. My brother's going abroad upset all our plans.

8. You will find difficulty in solving this problem.

9. The launching of the new apparatus is the indication of the outstanding progress of the country's science and technology.


7. Переведите предложения:

1. Astronomers know of galaxies existing in various shapes and sizes.

2. There is no hope of our completing the experiment soon.

3. They insisted on the devices being reexamined.

4. The girl was confused by our all observing her.

5. He went to the door to listen to her coming up.

6. There being an extensive system of evening and correspondence education in this country, a great number of people are part-time and correspondence students.

7. Vast sums being spent on education in the country, the state is able to provide qualified specialists for all branches of industry.

8. Holiday accommodation and facilities being cheap, all the students can spend their vacations in camps, rest homes, etc.

9. The work having been done, they went for a short walk.

10. College courses finished, all the graduates get work according to their speciality.

 

8. Переведите предложения:

1. We consider Isaac Newton to be one of the greatest mathematicians of all times.

2. 1 saw her making experiments in the laboratory.

3. They want this project to be completed as soon as possible.

4. We watched scientists testing a new device.

5. They expect us to have accomplished our task.

6. We believe them to be supplied with all the necessary documents.

7. We suppose the parts of the report to have been replaced.

8. I'd like him to make a report at the scientific conference.

9. Radio and television allow us to communicate with the remotest corners of the world.

10. The whole world knows his ideas to have had a great influence on world science.

 

9. Переведите предложения:

1. Electric current is known to flow in metal parts.

2. The doctor noticed the temperature of the child to be rising.

3. The weather is known to depend on many natural factors.

4. We want our reports to be listened to at the today's meeting.

5. The experiment is supposed to be completed.

6. I have never seen him making experiments in the laboratory.

7. The future is expected to bring a great many new scientific discoveries.

 

10. Употребите глаголы, заключённые в скобках, в соответствующей форме в придаточных предложениях времени и условия:

1. If you (translate) this article into Russian, I shall use it in my report.

2. When everybody (come), we shall start the discussion.

3. If I (be) free tomorrow, I shall call you.

4. He will remember it as long as he (live).

5. You will not master a foreign language unless you (work) hard.

6. If she (be) in Moscow now, she will meet you.

7. We shall discuss the book after you (read) it.

8. I shall do it while you (talk) to him.

9. They will wait till you (return).

10. What will you be doing when he (come) to your place?

 

11. Переведите предложения и определите тип условного предложения:

1. If you knew him better, you would be sorry for him.

2. If you see him, ask him to come.

3. If it had rained yesterday, we should have stayed at home.

4. If they had bought the tickets beforehand, we should have listened to the concert.

5. In case she comes ask her to wait.

6. If you had been present at the lecture, you would not have asked questions.

7. If it were my own book, I should give it to you.

8. I shall not be able to translate the text unless 1 get a dictionary.

 

12. Раскройте скобки. Составьте предложения, с нереальным условием, относящимся к настоящему и к будущему:

1. If it (not to be) so dark, I (can) go for a walk.

2. If you (understand) children, you (not to speak) like that.

3. The flowers (grow) better if you (water) them regularly.

4. If you (not to be) so angry, you (can) understand it yourself.

5. If she (want) to see you, she (can) come.

6. Even if he (be) here, I (say) the same.

7. If I (know) about it, I (help) you.

8. If I (know) how bad the film was, I (not to go) to the cinema.

9. She (know) how to act if she (be given) all the instructions.

10. If you (be) silent, they (forget) all about it in an hour.

11. He (be) very glad if you (bring) him his book.

12. If the poem (not to be) so long, he (learn) it by heart.

13. If it (not to be) so late, we (not to leave).

 

Переведите тексты письменно.

Text 1. Crime

A crime is understood as a socially dangerous act (or omission) directed against the social and state system, the system of economy, property and other rights of citizens or any other act infringing law and order which is defined in criminal legislation as dangerous to society.

Criminal legislation states that there can be no criminal responsibility where the nature of the act is not socially dangerous. In consequence, criminal law does not regard as a crime an act or omission which, even if formally containing features of some act covered by criminal law, does not constitute a danger to society on account of its triviality.

Each crime consists of a number of individual elements. Those elements characterize the purpose of a criminal act, the form and method of an action, the character of a criminal act and so forth. The total sum of elements defining a specific crime comprises what is known as the corpus delicti of a crime. The corpus delicti in any act is grounds for establishing criminal responsibility against the offender. A person may not be considered guilty of having committed a crime unless several elements of corpus delicti of that crime have been established in his acts. In the absence of any element of corpus delicti in the acts of the accused, criminal proceedings may not be instituted, and if instituted, may not be continued, and must be stopped at any stage. In pronouncing its sentence the court must above all answer these questions: a) did the act ascribed to the accused actually take place? b) does it contain corpus delicti? c) was the act performed by the accused? The object of a crime is, under criminal law, social relations guarded by criminal legislation. This means that all crimes prescribed by the Criminal Code are ultimately aimed against the social relations taking shape and developing in society. However, each crime has an immediate object. Thus, murder has its immediate object - human life, theft - state, collective or personal property; rowdyism (hooliganism) - public law and order, etc.

A crime may be committed by an act, i.e. the active behaviour of a person, or persons, or by an omission, i.e. the non-performance of acts which it was his duty to perform (such as failure to use authority).

The subject of a crime is a person who commits the crime and is responsible for it. Only persons who have attained a certain age and are compos mentis can be the subject of a crime. Persons who have the age of 16 before the commission of a crime are criminally responsible; for some crimes (murder, deliberate infliction of bodily injury impairing health, brigandage, stealing, robbery, hooliganism with evil intent, etc.) the age is 14 years.

Actually, the age limit for some crimes (committed by persons in office in their official capacity, military crimes, etc.) is considerably higher.

A person who, at the time of the commission of a socially dangerous act, is non-compos mentis, i.e. is unable to account for his actions or to govern them in consequence of chronic mental disease, temporary mental derangement, weak-mindedness or some other morbid state, is not criminally responsible. Compulsory medical treatment as established by the criminal legislation of the state (placing in a general or special mental hospital) may be applied to such a person by a court order.

A person who, at the time of the commission of a crime, is compos mentis but, before a sentence is passed by the court, is affected by mental derangement, is not liable to punishment. By an order of the court compulsory medical treatment may be applied to such a person and on recovery from his illness he may be liable to punishment. A person committing a crime while in a state of drunkenness is not relieved of criminal responsibility.


Text № 2 Psychopathy

There is no well-supported theory of psychopathy; many factors are involved that may vary from case to case. Current research focuses on biological determinants and on the qualities of the parent - child relationship that reinforce psychopathic styles of coping with reality.

The clinical impression that the psychopathic individual experiences little anxiety about future discomforts or punishments has been supported by experimental studies. One study compared two groups of adolescent male delinquents. The experimenters tested galvanic skin response (GSR) under stress. Dummy electrodes were attached to each subject's leg, and he was told that in 10 minutes he would be given a very strong but not harmful shock. (A large clock was visible so that the subject knew precisely when the shock was supposed to occur; no shock was actually administered). The two groups showed no difference in GSR measures during periods of rest or in response to auditory or visual stimulation. However, during the 10 minutes of shock anticipation, the nonpsychopathic group showed significanly more tension than the psychopathic group, and at the moment when the clock indicated shock was due, most of the nonpsychopathic delinquents showed an abrupt drop in skin resistance (indicating a sharp increase in anxiety); none of the psychopaths showed this reaction (Lippert&Senter, 1966). Other studies in prison have shown that psychopaths do not learn to avoid shocks as quickly as normal or neurotic individuals do, nor evidence as much autonomic nervous system activity as other prisoners under a variety of conditions (Hare, 1970).

These findings have led to the hypothesis that psychopathic individuals may have been born with an underreactive autonomic nervous system; this would explain why they seem to require so much excitement and why they fail to respond normally to the threats of danger that deter most people from antisocial acts. Interpretations must be made with caution, however. It is possible that psychopaths view experimental situations as something of a game and they try to play it "extra cool" by attempting to control their responses.


Text 3. Personnel Managemen

Personnel administration represents a major subsystem in the general management system in which it refers to the management of human resources. It is used to identify the entire scope of management policies and programs in the recruitment, allocation, leadership, and direction of manpower. Personnel administration begins with the definition of the required quantities of particular personal capabilities. Thereafter, people are to be found, selected, trained or retrained, negotiated with, counseled, led, directed, committed, rewarded, transferred, promoted, and finally released or retired.

In many of these relations, managers deal with their associates as individuals — the field takes its name in part from this type of relationship. In some working organizations, however, employees have been represented by unions, and managers bargain with these associations. Such collective-bargaining relationships are generally described as labour relations. Functions of management we should consider here could be defined in the following way.

Major areas of personnel department responsibilities include organizing-devising and revising organizational structures of authority and functional responsibility. They are aimed to facilitate two-way, reciprocal, vertical and horizontal com-munication. The next one is staffing, or manning-analyzing jobs that develop job descriptions and specifications. That is — appraising and maintaining an inventory of available capabilities, recruiting, selecting, placing, transferring, demoting, promoting and thus assuring qualified manpower when and where it is needed.

Planning and forecasting personnel requirements in terms of numbers and special qualifications as well as scheduling inputs, has been marked as very important for anticipating the need for appropriate managerial policies and programs. One should bear in mind that training the development-assisting team members, from pre-employment. preparatory job training to executive development programs will be able to secure their continuing personal growth. It is necessary for a personnel manager to make collective bargaining-negotiating agreements and in follow these ones through in day-to-day administration;

Rewarding a personnel manager have to ensure provides financial and non-financial incentives for individual commitment and contribution. And of course, general administration - developing appropriate styles and patterns of leadership throughout the organization is one of the main areas of personnel management. It should be also mentioned here the importance of auditing, reviewing, and researching, that is, evaluating current performance and procedures in order to facilitate control and improve future practice.

To designate equally a body of knowledge, a process and a profession the term "ergonomics" or "human-factors engineering" has been used. Human engineering they have called it on the North American continent or ergonomics as it has been called in Japan, in Europe are originated from the Greek words: "ergon" — "work" and "nomos" — law. It is a collection of data and principles about human characteristics, capabilities and limitations in relation to ma-chines, jobs and environments, to take into account the safety, comfort, and productiveness of human users and operators. The data and principles of human-factors engineering are concerned with human performance, behaviour and training in man-machine systems and the design and development of man-machine systems.

Пример решения: 

  1. Напишите следующие прилагательные в сравнительной и превосходной степени:

beautiful, good, pale, thin, lazy, bad, hot, difficult, dirty, short, long, interesting, deep, young

Adjective

Comparative  form

Superlative form

Beautiful

more beautiful

the most beautiful

Good

better

the best

Pale

paler

the palest

Thin

thinner

the thinnest

Lazy

lazier

the laziest

Bad

worse

the worst

Hot

hotter

the hottest

Difficult

more difficult

the most difficult

Dirty

dirtier

the dirtiest

Short

shorter

the shortest

Long

longer

the longest

Interesting

more interesting

the most interesting

Deep

deeper

the deepest

Young

younger

the youngest


14 стр.