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Выберите правильный вариант ответа.

1. John is a good boy. He.............his room before he leaves for school.

A) is always tidying B) always tidied C) always tidies D) had always tidied

2. We................for Paris at 7 o'clock next Monday morning.

A) had left B) have been leaving C) have left D) are leaving

3. You........things! Can't you be more careful?

A) are always losing B) had always lost C) always lost D) has always lost

4 These flowers...............nice. What are they?

A) are smelling B) have smelt C) smelt D) smell

5. Mr Jones...............New York. He'll be back on Friday.

A) has been in B) has gone to C) has been to D) has gone in

6. I.......Capri. I went there on holiday last year.

A) have been to B) have gone in C) have gone to D) have been in

7. She................hard all day so she was too tired to go to the party.

A) is working B) has worked C) had been working D) has been working

8. Daniel.......in Australia for ten years, then he moved to England.

A) lived B) has lived C) lives D) has been living

9. Tom was painting the garage while I.............in the garden.

A) have been working B) had worked C) work D) was working

10. While she.............across the road she fell and twisted her ankle.

A) ran B) was running C) had run D) has run

11. Susan works in a theatre. She.........a lot of famous actors so far.

A) met B) is meeting C) has met D) had met

12. We...............our tickets weeks before we went on holiday.

A) were booking B) had been booking C) have booked D) had booked

13. It's a pleasure..........you after so many years.

A) meet B) to meet C) met D) to meeting

14. It was clever of him.........the crossword in five minutes.

A) do B) doing C) did D) to do

15. We...............in a big house, but now we live in a flat.

A) used to live B) have lived C) would live D) are used to living

16. I suppose Martha............by the time we get to her house.

A) will wake up B) will have woken up C) wakes up D) has been waking up

17. He can't leave the office until he...........writing that report.

A) finished B) will finish C) finishes D) is going to finish

18. There are books all over Tom's desk. He...............

A) has been studying B) had studied C) studied D) had been studying


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The Public Relations Writer

The ability to write well is a necessity for work in public relations. Writing is an integral part of the public relations process of research, planning, communication, and evaluation. It is most visible at the third stage, when a program is being implemented and various messages are being communicated to key audiences important to the success of your program.

Effective writing is based on facts that are presented clearly, concisely, and accurately. From this standpoint, both the public relations writer and the journalist share a common ground. Indeed, there was a time when experience in newspaper writing was practically a requirement for a job in public relations.

Although this is no longer true, emphasis remains on use of a journalistic style in public relations writing. This is because much of what you write is directed to the news media. A solid understanding of journalistic principles and concepts is needed, but it is a mistake for public relations writers to consider themselves simply "journalists in residence".

A public relations writer differs from a journalist in at least three basic aspects: objectives, audiences, and channels.



A journalist is usually employed by a news organization to gather, process, and synthesize information for the primary purpose of providing news to the organization's subscribers, viewers, or listeners. A hallmark of professional reporting is to present information in an objective manner. A reporter's personal preference may affect the choice of words and the news angle of the story, but in general, the reporter tries to maintain an attitude of strict neutrality.

The public relations writer, in contrast, is usually employed by an organization that wants to communicate with a variety of audiences, either through the news media or through other channels of communication. This may include corporations, government agencies, environmental groups, labor unions, trade associations, or public relations firms who provide information on behalf of clients.

The writer's purpose is not objectivity but advocacy. The goal is not only to inform but also to persuade and motivate.

Hence all public relations writing should begin with the question, How does this help the organization attain its objectives? For example, does a product news release point out the advantages of the company's new product and how can it benefit a potential customer? The editor of a company employee newsletter must also consider company objectives when planning various articles. If the company wants to increase employee productivity, the editor may decide to run several features about employees who are outstanding workers.



The journalist writes for one audience — readers, listeners, or viewers of the medium for which he or she works. Newspapers, magazines, radio, and television are usually defined as "mass media" because the audience is numerous and unknown to the communicator, and its members have little in common. A suburban daily newspaper, for example, circulates primarily among people who share a common residential area but have a broad range of backgrounds and interests. Such mass media, by definition, usually present material written at the fourth- to sixth-grade level and offer a wide variety of stories and features to satisfy almost any interest, be it sports, local news, or the daily horoscope.

In contrast, the readers of a special interest magazine share a very strong interest in only one subject — a particular hobby, a specific industry, or a highly specialized occupation. Reporters for such magazines write about just one subject for a limited and intensely interested audience.

The public relations writer, however, may write for numerous and radically different audiences — employees, constituents, customers, business people, homemakers, travelers, bankers, stockholders, farmers, and many others. Effective public relations writing is based on carefully defining the audience and its composition so that you can tailor your information to its interests and concerns. A public relations writer does research constantly to determine these audience needs, concerns, and interests. Armed with this information, you can write a more persuasive message.



Journalists, by nature of their employment, reach their audiences through one channel, the medium that publishes or broadcasts their work.

The public relations writer, with many specific audiences to reach, will probably use many channels. Indeed, public relations writers must not only determine the message but also select the most effective channel of communication. In many cases, the channel may not be any of the traditional mass media — newspapers, magazines, radio, and television. The most effective channel for the tailored message may be direct mail, a pamphlet, an organizational newsletter, a videotape, a poster, or a special event. Any combination of channels may be selected to achieve message penetration and maximum understanding.


Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты для следующих выражений:

неотъемлемая часть, основываться на ч.-л., требование к ч.-л., отличаться от к.-л., от имени к.-л., достичь цели, иметь мало общего с ч.-л., удовлетворить любые интересы, максимальное понимание, в первую очередь.

Переведите на русский:

to present facts, to provide news, to benefit a customer, to process information, by definition, the audience and its composition, highly specialized occupation, a limited audience, a special event, to increase productivity.

Предложите синонимы к следующим словам:

basic, outstanding, broad, range, persuasive, to select, purpose.

Пример решения:

  1. John is a good boy. He....always tidies… his room before he leaves for school.
  1. We... are leaving....for Paris at 7 o'clock next Monday morning.
  1. You. are always losing..things! Can't you be more careful?
  2. These flowers... smell...nice. What are they?

4 стр.