Контрольная работа по английскому языку 3919
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КОНТРОЛЬНАЯ РАБОТА No1
1. Прочитайте текст и письменно ответьте по-английски на вопросы, следующие за текстом.
2. Выпишите существительные в единственном числе и поставьте их во множественном числе.
3. Выпишите из текста предложенные конструкции с предлогом of и переведите их на русский язык.
4. Выпишите из текста прилагательные и наречия, переведите их на русский язык и образуйте степени сравнения.
5. Найдите в тексте и переведите на русский язык предложения, в которых употреблены местоимения. Укажите, к какой группе они относятся (личные, указательные, вопросительные, относительные).
6. Выпишите из текста все неправильные глаголы, запишите их основные формы и переведите их на русский язык.
7. Выпишите из текста 5 предложений в Present Indefinite и переведите их на русский язык. Напишите эти предложения в вопросительной и отрицательной формах. Преобразуйте эти же предложения в Past и Future Indefinite и переведите их на русский язык. Напишите их в вопросительной и отрицательной формах.
8. Переведите письменно отрывок текста контрольной работы No1 на русский язык. При переводе пользуйтесь англо-русским словарем.
THE LAND OF WHITE NIGHTS
Saint-Petersburg was founded on 16 May, 1703. Severa lgenerations of talented Russian and foreign architects were engaged in the planning and con-struction of Petersburg’s centre. The Peter and Paul Fortress was built to
protect the Neva banks from Swedish invasion. Later D.Trezzini, the famous Swiss archi tect, reconstructed the fortress. It became a prison. Now it is a museum. D.Trezzini erected the Peter and Paul Cathedral here, which is a
masterpiece of architecture. Russian tsars were buried in it.
Petersburg is one of the world's most beautiful cities.
The Summer Garden, the Winter Palace, the Her
mitage, the monument to Peter
I, the Russian Museum are the city's remarkable architectural sights.
Soon after Petersburg appeared, it turned into the main center of Russian sci-ence and culture. Outstanding scholars like M.V. Lomonosov, D.I. Mendeleyev,
I.P. Pavlov and many others engaged themselves in activities of the Academy of Sci
ences and the University. A.S. Pushkin, M.Y. Lermontov, N.A. Nekrasov glorified the city in many of their works.
There are many memorial places in the city that relate to l
ife and creative work of the great Russian writers N.V. Gogol, T.M. Dostoevsky, the composers M.I.
Glinka, P.I. Chaikovskiy, M.P. Musorgskiy. N.A. Rimskiy -
Korsakov, the painters
K.P. Bryullov, I.Y. Repin, I.N. Kramskoy, V.I. Surikov, etc.
St. Petersburg today is a centre of science and culture, well-developed industries including shipbuilding, a large international port on the Baltic Sea.
St. Petersburg is famous for its suburbs. Petrodvorets (Peterhof), Pushkin
(Tsarskoe Selo), Pavlovsk, Lomonosov are museums of history and art. Russian and foreign tourists visit St-Petersburg suburbs to see outstanding pieces of Russian art.Magnificent architectural ensembles, sculptures, a unique water-ductsystem for numerous fountains, fine examples of park-landscape art make one solemnly
proud of the generations of Russian people who have managed to create, in rotten swamp, such great masterpieces of human genius. Anyone who visits St-Petersburg will always be tempted to come back.
1. When was the town of
St. Petersburg founded?
2. St. Petersburg is one of the world's most beautiful cities, isn't it?
3. What is St. Petersburg famous for?
4. Is St. Petersburg a centre of science and culture?
Agriculture is the production of food and goods1
through farming. Agriculture was the key development that led to the rise of human civilization, with the husbandry of domesticated animals2 and plants (i.e. crops) creating food
surpluses that enabled the development of more densely populated3 societies. The study of agriculture is known as
Agriculture encompasses a wide variety of specialties and techniques, including ways to expand the lands suitable for plant raising, by digging water-channels and other forms of irrigation. Cultivation of crops on arable land4 and the pastoral herding of livestock on rangeland remain at the foundation of agriculture. In the past century there has been increasing concern to identify and quantify various forms of agriculture. In the developed world the range usually extends between sustainable agriculture (e.g. organic agriculture) and intensive farming (e.g. industrial agriculture).
Modern agronomy, plant breeding, pesticides and fertilizers, and technological improvements have sharply increased yields from cultivation, and at the same time have caused widespread ecological damage and negative human health
effects. Selective breeding5 and modern practices in animal husbandry such as intensive pig farming6 (and similar practices applied to the chicken) have similarly increased the output of meat, but have raised concerns about animal cruelty and the health effects of the antibiotics, growth hormones, and other chemicals commonly
used in industrial meat production.
The major agricultural products can be broadly grouped into
foods, fibers, fuels, and raw materials. In the 2000s, plants have been used to grow biofuels, biopharmaceuticals, bioplastics7, and pharmaceuticals. Specific foods include
cereals, vegetables, fruits, and meat.
Fibers include cotton, wool, hemp, silkand flax.
Raw materials include lumber and bamboo. Other useful materials are produced by plants, such as resins. Biofuels include methanefrom biomass, ethanol, and biodiesel.
Cut flowers, nursery plants, tropical fish and birds for the pet trade are some of the ornamental products.
In 2007, about one third of the world's workers were employed in agriculture. The services sector has overtaken agriculture as the economic sectorem ploying the most people worldwide. Despite the size of its workforce, agricultural production accounts for less than five percent of the gross world product8 (an aggregate of all gross domestic products9).
AGRICULTURE SAFETY A
Agriculture ranks among the most hazardous1 industries. Farmers are at high risk for fatal and nonfatal injuries2, work-
related lung diseases3, hearing loss, skin diseases, and certain cancers associated with chemical use and prolonged sun exposure4. Farming is one of the few industries in which the families (who often share the work and live on the premises5) are also at risk for injuries, illness, and death. In an average year, 516 workers die doing farm work in the U.S. (1992-2005).
Of these deaths, 101 are caused by tractor overturns. Every day, about 243 agricultural workers suffer lost-work-time injuries, and about 5% of these result in permanent im pairment6.
Agriculture is the most dangerous industry for young workers, accounting for 42% of all work-related fatalities of young workers in the U.S. between 1992 and 2000. Unlike other industries, half the young victims in agriculture were under age 15.For young agricultural workers aged 15–
17, the risk of fatal injury is four times the risk for young workers in other workplaces. Agricultural work exposes young workers to safety hazards such as machinery, confined spaces, work at elevations, and work around livestock7.
An estimated 1.26 million children and adolescents under 20 years of age resided on farms in 2004, with about 699,000 of these youth performing work on the farms. In addition to the youth who live on farms, an additional 337,000 children and adolescents were hired to work8
on U.S. farms in 2004. On average, 103 children 41are killed9 annually on farms (1990-1996). Approximately 40 percent of these deaths were work-related. In 2004, an estimated 27,600 children and adolescents were
injured on farms; 8,100 of these injuries were due to farm work.
1.When was the town of St. Petersburg founded? - The town of St. Petersburg was founded on 16 May, 1703.
2.St. Petersburg is one of the world's most beautiful cities, isn't it? Yes, it is. St. Petersburg is one of the world's most beautiful cities.
3.What is St. Petersburg famous for? - St. Petersburg is famous for its suburbs.
4.Is St. Petersburg a centre of science and culture? – Yes, it is. St. Petersburg is a centre of science and culture.