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1. Перепишите следующие предложения, подчеркните в них

глагол-сказуемое, определите его время, вид и залог. Переведите

предложения на русский язык.

Например: is based – Pr. Simple Passive

1.Compound semiconductors have been applied to a great extent.

2. The performance characteristics of amplifiers will have been altered.

3. The model has been modified and is now being used in many practical situations.

4. Magnetic amplifiers have been employed for some 50 years; transistors were reported upon in 1948.

5. The problem will be dealt with in the next chapter.

6. Which of the two operations is to be performed next?

7. Those who learn a foreign language must follow spelling and grammar rules.

8. They left before the hour of the next meeting has been agreed upon.

9. She was being laughed at by everybody.

10. They say that paper must have been invented in China.

 

2. Поставьте глагол-сказуемое в следующих предложениях в

страдательном залоге, стараясь сохранить время.

1.? killed thirty people and ? injured (травмировать, получать увечье)

65 in that terrible accident. 2. ? hid the treasure in a place which no one

could find. 3. ? can't learn a foreign language in a few days. 4. The dog was

mad and ? had to shoot it.

 

3. Из данных слов постройте предложения. Глаголы в скобках

поставьте в нужную форму страдательного залога.

1. a few students – was (to do) – this exercise – correctly.

2. this book – a very young author – was (to write).

3. is being (to make) – his new suit – a first-class tailor.

4. the sun rays – is (to give) - to us – heat.

5. alone – often – was (to leave) – the child – home.

 

4. Трансформируйте предложения в активный залог, используя

слова they, we, somebody в качестве подлежащего, где это

необходимо.

1. Harry wasn't punished at all. 2. The problem will be dealt with in the

next chapter. 3. They knew that the reason had been explained to us. 5.

Today plastics are being widely used instead of metals.

 

5. Перепишите и переведите на русский язык следующие

предложения, обращая внимание на различные значения

глаголов to do, to be, to have.

1. Don't come at 9 o'clock. 2. Did he do his work well? 3. The operators

dealing with radioisotopes must have protective suits. 4. The engineers are

to study the problem of using artificial intelligence. 5. We had to change

the design of this machine. 6. There are two main classes of film and hybrid

integrated circuits. 7. The transistors and diodes are widely used on

monolithic integrated circuits because of the relatively small size. 8. The

semiconductor may have a net positive electrostatic charge. 9. The pilots

had to maintain direct radio contact between the planes. 10. A modern

automatic digital computer does more than 100 mln operations in each

second.

 

6. Трансформируйте следующие предложения в

придаточные дополнительные, начав с фраз I knew, I thought, He

said . Измените время глаголов-сказуемых в придаточных

дополнительных в соответствии с правилами согласования

времен. Произведите другие необходимые преобразования.

1. My foreign friends are going to send me an invitation for visiting

Paris. 2. We can simplify this question. But there is no need for doing this.

3. A calculator is just any other electronic system, except that it uses digital

electronics instead of analog electronics. 4. Everybody is going to attend

the scientific conference, which is to be held in our city in May. 5. The TV

program does not seem interesting and viewers cannot expect any positive

changes in it. 6. He does not have to take a bus – he lives near the

University. 7. The experiment has already been conducted, and scientists

are pleased with the results. 8. It took him a lot of effort to complete the

experiment in time. 9. Some of the most respected publications declared

that a machine could never do anything that required thought. 10. How are

directions to be expressed to the computer?

 

7. Перепишите следующий диалог с целью передачи чужих

высказываний в косвенной речи сначала в настоящем времени

(Например, Professor says that Alec ’s answer was rather good and……),

а затем в прошедшем (Например, Professor said that Alec ’s answer

had been rather good and……). Помните, что при передаче чужого

высказывания в косвенной речи действует правило согласования

времен, если косвенная речь вводится глаголом в прошедшем

времени!

Professor: Your answer was rather good. Now I would like to ask you a

few extra questions.

Alec : Yes, Professor. I'm ready.

Professor: What is an interface?

Alec: An interface is interconnection between hardware, software, and

people.

Professor: That is right. Do you agree that there are hardware interfaces

and software interfaces?

Alec: Yes, I do. There are also interfaces between people and computers.

They are terminal screens and keyboards.

Professor: And what are hardware interfaces?

Alec: They are physical channels, cables, or wires. They connect and

exchange electronic signals between the CPU and peripherals or between

any two units.

Professor: And what about software interfaces? Can you give any

example?

Alec: Software interfaces are application programs, Data Base Management

Systems, communication programs, and the operating system.

Professor: And what are they?

Alec: They are specific messages established between programs.

Professor: Good. I like your answer. Your mark is a five.

Alec: Thank you, Professor. Good-bye.


8. Передайте диалог, пересказанный в косвенной речи, в

прямой речи.

One day David met his friend John and asked him whether John knew

something about translating machines. John replied that translating

machines had been built many times but none of them, however, had done

its job well enough. That was the reason why research on translating

machines had gone continuously.

Then David said that one day he had seen a CD with some programs,

which might help to translate from Russian into English.

John advised David not to waste money and time because all these

programs were unable to produce intelligible translation. They merely

substituted Russian words with English equivalents and did not analyze the

relations between the words of each sentence.

David exclaimed that when translating so many logical processes were

involved. He added that the machine must know much about grammar, and

Russian grammar was so different from English.

John also said that the commonest problem was where a word could

have more than one meaning. A human translator would know which

meaning to choose from the context. But machines had been known to

make the wrong choice because if a machine was to make usable

translations, it itself must be able to extract some, at least, of the meaning

of the text. So John concluded that such machines were much further off

and recommended David to study English hard.

 

9. Сгруппируйте предложения в зависимости от функции

герундия, а затем переведите на русский язык.

1. Casting is а process of forming metal objects. 2. Numerous methods

have been developed for producing metal castings. 3. The test needed

increasing the temperature of the metal. 4. There are some ways of

obtaining high quality alloys. 5. Aluminum has a melting point of 658.7° C.

6. Melting may be done in cupolas, air furnaces, electric furnaces, etc. 7.

Some metals require treatment before being placed in the melting furnace.

8. We know of electric finances being used for the production of high-grade

castings. 9. Plastics are a new group of materials replacing natural products.

10. Mankind is interested in atomic energy being used only for peaceful

purposes.


10. Перепишите предложения. Переведите группы

выделенных слов, а затем и все предложение на русский язык.

1. In building new metallurgical factories, engineers have to solve many

different problems. 2. In melting steel, electric furnaces, crucible furnaces

and converters are used. 3. Liquids and gases expand on heating. 4. On

completing the construction, the machine was tested in operation. 5.

Casting is a process of forming metal objects by melting metal and pouring

it into molds. 6. By introducing new methods the engineers increased the

speed of manufacture. 7. High-quality programs can't be produced without

employing qualified programmers. 8. Magnets made by rubbing pieces of

iron against natural magnets are called artificial magnets. 9. Scientists

succeeded in developing means of obtaining a synthetic rubber. 10. The

hardening process consists in heating steel and cooling it in water.

 

11. Сравните приводимые ниже предложения с инфинитивом

и покажите разницу их структурных моделей через перевод.

1.To explain this simple fact is not very easy. To explain this fact you must

know certain rules. 2. To find the mass of the electron was then of prime

importance. To use electric currents properly we must be able to detect and

measure them. 3. To insulate is to surround a conductor with insulating

material. To explain why the temperatures of the observed bodies are quite

different one should refer to the laws of hydrodynamics.

 

12. Перепишите и переведите на русский язык предложения с

инфинитивом в функции определения.

1. The instruments to be used in this experiment have been provided with

filters. 2. Lomonosov was the first to discover that heat, light and electricity

are different forms of movement. 3. The problem mentioned above and to

be considered in this paper is concerned with new principles of computer

design. 4. The problem to be studied can be simplified by the use of

controlled experimental conditions. 5. Industrial robots to be built now

perform certain tasks even better than the man. 6. Another factor for the

industrial engineer to consider is whether each manufacturing process can

be automated in whole or in part.

 

13. Определите, является ли Ving форма причастием

настоящего времени или герундием. Переведите предложения на

русский язык.

1. This can be illustrated by examining the memory chip. 2. Then a final

process known as metalisation completes the chip, thus reducing the

processing time for a new design by two-thirds. 3. For systems requiring

lower performance there is a choice: choice of technology and choice of

design. 4. The designers have aimed at gaining performance by reducing

the complexity of the control logic. 5. Solving these complex equations

may require a digital computer. 6. The advantages of the new equipment is

functioning under wide changes of temperature and pressure. 7. This

represents a set of programs concerned with displaying, analyzing,

checking and simulating the design. 8. Nearly all components and

interconnections for data-processing equipment are fabricated by automated

printing techniques, with the information for the manufacturing data being

in digital form. 9. When applying these two methods, consideration should

be given to the physical phenomenon. 10. The automated landing system

must ensure landing the passenger airplane at night.

 

14. Перепишите и переведите на русский язык следующий текст.

There are several advantages in making computers as small al possible.

Sometimes weight is particularly important. A modern aircraft, for

example, carries quite a load of electronic apparatus. If it is possible to

make any of these smaller, and therefore lighter, the aircraft can carry a

bigger load. This kind of consideration applies to space satellites and to all

kinds of computers that have to be carried about.

But weight is not the only factor. The smaller the computer the faster it

can work. The signals go to and from at a very high but almost constant

speed. So if one can scale down all dimensions to, let us say, one tenth, the

average lengths of the current paths will be reduced to one tenths. So, very

roughly speaking, scaling down of all linear dimensions in the ration of one

to ten also gives a valuable advantage, the speed of operation is scaled up to

10 times. Other techniques allow even further speed increase.

The increase of operation is a real advantage. Another advantage is that

less power is required to run the computer. In space satellites this is an

important matter. Another advantage is reliability. Mini-computers have

been made possible by the development of integrated circuits. Repair of

any kind is no longer needed. If one component circuit develops a fault, all

that is needed is to locate the faulty unit, throw it away and plug in a new one.


ПРИМЕР:
  1. Поставьте глагол-сказуемое в следующих предложениях в страдательном залоге, стараясь сохранить время.
Thirty people were killed and injured (травмировать, получать увечье) in that terrible accident.
The treasure is hidden in a place which no one could find.
A foreign language can't be learnt in a few days.
The dog was mad and it had to be shot.

14 стр.

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