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  1. Переведите письменно текст:


     Man's conscious labor and his first tools marked the beginning of the establishment of human society. Human beings embarked upon an entirely new way of life, unlike the life led by animals.  Animal can only make use of those benefits which nature provides for them.   Labor freed man from this complete dependence upon nature.

     With the aid of his new tools the man was able to get benefits to nature that were formerly inaccessible to him. He was also able to change these natural benefits and to make them more useful to himself. Tools of stone and wood made it possible for primitive man to considerably extend his use of material values.

     Man began to kill large, strong animals and thus added quantities of nourishing meat products to his diet. He learned to work the skins of animals and used them to protect his body from the cold. Man also used his tools to build shelters. It was the production of material values that became the basis of life in human society.


  1. Определите функции окончаний в подчеркнутых словах.


  1. Определите, к какой   части   речи   относятся   выделенные курсивом слова,   подчеркните соответствующие суффиксы.


  1. Определите видовременные формы глаголов в следующих предложениях:
  1. a) People produce goods and services.
  2. b) The government has set a limit on wage increases.
  3. c) The volume of world trade fell over 4 per cent in 1975, but it was rising again fast in 1976.
  4. d) World trade is growing very rapidly.
  5. e) The health of the world economy will depend greatly on international organizations.


  1. Выберите нужные местоимения из данных в скобках:
  1. a) Graphs help economists understand and remember (some, any) abstract ideas.
  2. b) There is (no, any) simple answer to most economic questions.
  3. c) (Nothing, anything) that alters prices has an influence on our lives.
  4. d) After the World War II the amount of currency that (anybody, any) person could purchase in the UK was limited.
  5. e) (Some, no) country can become a member of the Sterling Area without the consent of the others.


  1. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на различные значения слов it и one:
  1. a) It is necessary to make choices because we live in a world of scarcity.
  2. b) As Britain was the first big trading country, it established a network of trading relationship all over the world.
  3. c) It is technological improvements that increase the productivity of labor very often.
  4. d) One always faces the scarcity problem in some form.
  5. e) All societies must decide what goods and services to produce, which ones to postpone, and when and how to transfer productive resources from one use to another.


  1. Переведите предложения, содержащие модальные глаголы и их эквиваленты:
  1. a) Complete economic freedom might create great difficulties
  2. b) All countries can make profits through international trade.
  3. c) In order to increase productivity the producers should reorganize the work process
  4. d) Some industries have to pay higher wages to attract the extra labor.
  5. e) Any economic system must use one or more decision-making rules or methods.


  1. Текст о себе

Составьте рассказ о себе, обращая внимание на вопросы.

  1. What is your name?
  2. How old are you?
  3. What are you? What is your profession?
  4. Do you like your job or not? Why?
  5. Is your office at the centre of the city?
  6. What are your hobbies and special interests?

My name is Bykova Ekaterina. I am 23 years old. I was born in Uzbekistan. Ten years ago my family moved in Russia, In town Kostroma. Here I have graduated a college. I studied at a faculty of hotel service management. Nova days I work in  «Old Srteet» hotel, as an administrator. Reception and placement of guests, room reservation belongs to my duties. I want to graduate from institute, it will allow me to move ahead further on a career ladder.